1. Solar Cells
Solar cells do the major work of converting sunlight directly into electricity. They are often rectangular or hexagonal wafers of purified and crystallized silicon over which a network of very thin wires called fingers/ribbons and busbars have been connected to conduct away the electricity generated from the cells to the terminals where they can be used by appliances.
Solar cells come in different designs, colours, technologies and configurations. When these cells are arranged together and connected with busbars and fingers in sizes of 60, 72, 96, 120 and 144 cells or more, they form a solar module.
2. EVA Film
EVA ‘ethylene vinyl acetate’ is a specially designed polymer and highly transparent plastic layer used to encapsulate the cells and hold them in position during manufacture. They serve to protect the cells from adverse weather conditions. They also help prevent moisture and dirt from entering the solar panel. In addition, they help to soften the impact of shocks and vibrations and therefore protect the solar photovoltaic cells and the busbars and fingers. These cells are placed between two EVA films in a vacuum and, under heat and compression and with the help of a special type of lamination machine, are laminated together .
There are two major problems that are often associated with the EVA film and both can impact the solar panel module: